The Eurachem reading list

3. Uncertainty of measurement


  • BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, OIML JCGM 100:2008, Evaluation of measurement data - Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM 1995 with minor corrections) ( (Printed as ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008. (
  • JCGM has produced a number of supplements to accompany the GUM, available at
    • Evaluation of measurement data – The role of measurement uncertainty in conformity assessment, JCGM 106:2012
    • Evaluation of measurement data – Supplement 2 to the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement" – Extension to any number of output quantities, JCGM 102:2011
    • Evaluation of measurement data – An introduction to the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement" and related documents, JCGM 104:2009
    • Evaluation of measurement data – Supplement 1 to the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement" – Propagation of distributions using a Monte Carlo method, JCGM 101:2008
  • ISO 11352:2012 Water quality -- Estimation of measurement uncertainty based on validation and quality control data (
  • ISO 21748:2017. Guidance for the use of repeatability, reproducibility and trueness estimates in measurement uncertainty estimation. (
  • ISO/TS 21749:2005. Measurement uncertainty for metrological applications -- Repeated measurements and nested experiments. (
  • ISO/TS 28037:2010 Determination and use of straight line calibration functions (


  • R. Bettencourt da Silva and S. L. R. Ellison (eds.) Eurachem/CITAC Guide: Assessment of performance and uncertainty in qualitative chemical analysis. First Edition, Eurachem (2021). ISBN 978-0-948926-39-6 (
  • M. H. Ramsey, S. L. R. Ellison and P. Rostron (eds.) Eurachem/EUROLAB/CITAC/Nordtest/AMC Guide: Measurement uncertainty arising from sampling: a guide to methods and approaches. Second Edition, Eurachem (2019). ISBN 978-0-948926-35-8 (
  • A. Williams and B. Magnusson (eds.) Eurachem/CITAC Guide: Use of uncertainty information in compliance assessment (2nd ed. 2021). ISBN 978-0-948926-38-9 (
  • R. Bettencourt da Silva, A. Williams (Eds), Setting and using target uncertainty in chemical measurement, Eurachem/CITAC, 2015, ISBN 978-989-98723-7-0 (
  • S. L. R. Ellison, A. Williams (Eds), Quantifying uncertainty in analytical measurement, 3rd Edition, Eurachem/CITAC, 2012, ISBN 978-0-948926-30-3 (
  • ILAC G8:09/2019, Guidelines on decision rules and statements of conformity (
  • ILAC P10:07/2020, ILAC Policy on metrological traceability of measurement results (
  • ILAC P14:09/2020, ILAC Policy for measurement uncertainty in calibration (
  • Decision rules applied to conformity assessment, Technical report No. 01/2017, EUROLAB, 2017 (
  • B. Magnusson, T. Näykki, H. Hovind, M. Krysell, Handbook for calculation of measurement uncertainty in environmental laboratories, Nordtest Report TR 537 ed 4:2017 (
  • B. Magnusson, M. Krysell, E. Sahlin and T. Näykki, Uncertainty from sampling – A Nordtest Handbook, Nordtest Report TR 604 ed 2:2020 (
  • EA-4/02 M, Evaluation of the uncertainty of measurement in calibration, 2021 (
  • N. Majcen and V Gegevičius (Ed.), Analytical measurement: measurement uncertainty and statistics, 2012, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, ISBN 978-92-79-23071-4 (
  • N. Majcen, P. Taylor, T. Martišius, A. Menditto, M. Patriarca, Practical examples on traceability, measurement uncertainty and validation in chemistry Vol 2, 2011, European Commission, Joint Research Centre (
  • N. Majcen, P. Taylor, L. Benedik, Practical examples on traceability, measurement uncertainty and validation in chemistry Vol 1, 2010, European Commission, Joint Research Centre (
  • Measurement uncertainty revisited: Alternative approaches to uncertainty evaluation, Technical report No. 1/2007, EUROLAB, 2007 (
  • Guide to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty for quantitative tests results, Technical repor No. 1/2006, EUROLAB, 2006 (
  • Measurement uncertainty in testing, Technical report No. 1/2002, EUROLAB, 2002 (


  • Eurachem information leaflets (
    • What is the uncertainty factor? (2019)
    • Use of uncertainty information in compliance assessment (updated 2021)
    • Setting target measurement uncertainty (2018)
    • Treatment of an observed bias (2017)
    • Using repeated measurements to improve the standard uncertainty (2nd edition, 2016)
    • Important information to our customers concerning the quality of chemical measurements(2000)
  • Eurolab cookbooks (
    • Doc No. 8.0, Determination of conformance with specifications or limit values with particular reference to measurement uncertainties - possible strategies, 2018
  • AMC Technical Briefs, RSC, (
    • AMC TB 88-2019, Why do we need the uncertainty factor?
    • AMC TB 71-2015, Sampling theory and sampling uncertainty
    • AMC TB 64-2014 Unbalanced robust ANOVA for the estimation of measurement uncertainty at reduced cost
    • AMC TB 58-2014, Estimating sampling uncertainty - how many duplicate samples are needed?
    • AMC TB 53-2012, Dark uncertainty
    • AMC TB 42-2009, The importance, for regulation, of uncertainty from sampling
    • AMC TB 40-2009, The duplicate method for the estimation of measurement uncertainty arising from sampling
    • AMC TB 32-2008, Optimising your uncertainty - a case study
    • AMC TB 26A-2008, Measurement uncertainty and confidence intervals near natural limits
    • AMC TB 22-2006, Uncertainties in concentrations estimated from calibration experiments
    • AMC TB 21A-2008, The estimation and use of recovery factors
    • AMC TB 20-2005, Analytical and sampling strategy, fitness for purpose, and computer games
    • AMC TB 16A-2004, What is uncertainty from sampling, and why is it important?
    • AMC TB 15-2003, Is my uncertainty estimate realistic?

Articles and reports

  • A. C. Olivieri, N. M. Faber, J. Ferré, R. Boqué, J. H. Kalivas, H. Mark, Uncertainty estimation and figures of merit for multivariate calibration, IUPAC Technical Report, Pure Appl. Chem., 2006, 78(3), 633-661,
  • J. Kragten, Calculating standard deviations and confidence intervals with a universally applicable spreadsheet technique, Analyst, 1994, 119, 2161-2166,

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